Research

Working with The Water Research Foundation

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Our History with The Water Research Foundation

We are currently leading research projects regarding high-quality water and infrastructure reliability for The Water Research Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to developing technology and guidance documents for the water utility industry. Our experts, working in partnership with WRF-member utilities and universities, carefully examine new approaches to water characterization, treatment, and distribution, developing a knowledge base to help you make important decisions regarding the safety and future of your water systems.

For instance, when you need answers on how to achieve optimal corrosion control in your distribution system or how to apply emerging technology for arsenic and manganese removal, we have firsthand experience from the frontlines of research to help you choose the right approach and technology. Below is a list of current and past WRF projects completed by us. You may purchase a copy of any published report by following the link to WRF’s website via the Project Number listed below.

Project Name: A Biofiltration Guidance Manual for Rapid-Rate Filtration Facilities
Project Number: 4719
Completed: 2020

Project Name: Impact of Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (EBPR) on Dewaterability 
Project Number: 4827 / NUTR5R14d
Completed:  2019

Project Name: Practical Monitoring Tools for the Biological Processes in Biofiltration
Project Number: 4620
Completed: 2019

Project Name: Retrofit and Management of Metallic Pipe with Cathodic Protection
Project Number: 4618
Completed: 2018

Project Name: Optimizing Biofiltration for Various Source Water Quality 
Project Number: 4555
Completed: 2018

Project Name: Leveraging Data from Non-Destructive Examinations to Help Select Ferrous Water Mains for Renewal
Project Number: 4471
Completed: 2018

Project Name: Sources, Chemistry, Fate, and Transport of Chromium in Drinking Water Treatment Plants and Distribution Systems  
Project Number: 4497
Completed: 2017

Project Name: Converting Conventional Filters to Biofilters 
Project Number:   4496
Completed:  2017

Project Name: Managing Infrastructure Risk: The Consequence of Failure for Buried Assets
Project Number: 4451
Completed: 2017

Project Name: Sustainability Evaluation of Nutrient Removal Technologies Using Comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment
Project Number: NUTR5R14f
Completed: 2016

Project Name: Nutrient Management Volume III: Development of Nutrient Permitting Frameworks
Project Number: NUTR1R06z
Completed: 2016

Project Name: Nutrient Speciation and Refractory Compounds in Water Quality Models
Project Number: NUTR1R06aa
Completed: 2016

Project Name: Scoping Study to Review the Contributions of Corrosion to Chromium in Drinking Water
Project Number: 4562
Completed: 2016

Project Name: Full-Scale Demonstration of Engineered Biofiltration and Development of a Biofiltration Performance-Tracking Tool 
Project Number:  4525
Completed:  2016

Project Name: Development of a Biofiltration Knowledge Base 
Project Number:   4459
Completed: 2016

Project Name: Optimizing Filter Conditions for Improved Manganese Control During Conversion to Biofiltration  
Project Number: 4448
Completed: 2016

Project Name: Demonstrate UV System Validation by Lagrangian Actinometry Using Dyed-Microspheres  
Project Number: 4217
Completed: 2016

Project Name: Protocol for Validation of UV Disinfection Reactors Using Lagrangian Actinometry
Project Number: 4112
Completed: 2016

Project Name: MAINSTREAM DEAMMONIFICATION (Full-Plant Deammonification for Energy Positive Nitrogen Removal)
Project Number: INFR6R11
Completed: 2015

Project Name: Application of Membrane Bioreactor Processes for Achieving Low Effluent Nutrient Concentrations
Project Number: NUTR1R06u
Completed: 2015

Project Name: Short-cut Nitrogen Removal 
Project Number: LIFT5C14 
Completed: 2015

Project Name: Development of an Effective Asbestos Cement Distribution Pipe Management Strategy for Utilities
Project Number: 4480
Completed: 2015

Project Name: The Assess-and-Fix Approach: Using Non-Destructive Evaluations to Help Select Pipe Renewal Methods 
Project Number: 4473
Completed: 2015

Project Name: Management of Nuisance Aquatic Species at Pacific Northwest Drinking Water Utilities
Project Number: 4364
Completed: 2015

Project Name: Legacy of Manganese Accumulation in Water Systems 
Project Number: 4314
Completed: 2015

Project Name: Answers to Challenging Infrastructure Management Questions
Project Number: 4367
Completed: 2014

Project Name: Acoustic Signal Processing for Pipe Condition Assessment
Project Number: 4360
Completed: 2014

Project Name: Optimizing Engineered Biofiltration  
Project Number: 4346
Completed: 2014

Project Name: Effective Microbial Control Strategies for Main Breaks and Depressurization 
Project Number: 4307
Completed:  2014

Project Name: Uptake by Algae of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen from BNR Treatment Plant Effluents
Project Number: NUTR1R06e
Completed: 2013

Project Name: Guidance for the Treatment of Manganese
Project Number: 4373
Completed: 2013

Project Name: Defining and Enhancing the Safe Yield of a Multi-Use, Multi-Reservoir Water Supply 
Project Number: 4304
Completed: 2013

Project Name: Demonstration of Membrane Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) for Drinking Water Systems
Project Number: WERF5T10a
Completed: 2012

Project Name: Evaluation of Membrane Characterization Methods
Project Number: 4102
Completed: 2012

Project Name: Striking the Balance Between Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment and Sustainability
Project Number: NUTR1R06n
Completed: 2011

Project Name: Enhanced Reverse Osmosis Systems: Intermediate Treatment to Improve Recovery
Project Number: 4061 
Completed: 2011

Project Name: Evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Modeling UV-Initiated Advanced Oxidation Processes
Project Number: 3176
Completed: 2011

Project Name: Technology Roadmap for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Plants in a Carbon-Constrained World
Project Number: OWSO4R07d
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Nutrient Management: Regulatory Approaches to Protect Water Quality. Vol 1 - Review of Existing Practices
Project Number: NUTR1R06i
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Protocol to Evaluate Alternative External Carbon Sources for Denitrification at Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants
Project Number: NUTR1R06b
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Low Phosphorus Analytical Measurement Study
Project Number: NUTR1R06
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Evaluation of VSEP to Enhance Water Recovery During Treatment of Brackish Water and RO Concentrate
Project Number: 4148
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Compendium of Best Practices in Water Infrastructure Asset Management – GWRC
Project Number: 4111
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Chloride to Sulfate Mass Ratio (CSMR): Changes from Water Treatment and its Impact on Lead Leaching in Potable Water
Project Number: 4088
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Guidelines for Developing, Calibrating, and Using Hydraulic Models
Project Number: 4018
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Assessment of Inorganics Accumulation in Drinking Water System Scales and Sediments
Project Number: 3118
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Effect of Changing Disinfectants on Distribution System Lead and Copper Release
Project Number: 3107
Completed: 2010

Project Name: Variability of Low Phosphorus Analytical Measurement
Project Number: NUTR1R06f 
Completed: 2009

Project Name: Strategy to Manage and Respond to Total Coliforms and E.coli in the  Distribution System 
Project Number: 4130
Completed: 2009

Project Name: Investigation of Chemical Actinometer Microspheres for UV Dose-Distribution and Local Intensity Measurement
Project Number: 3139
Completed: 2009

Project Name: Strategies for Managing Total Coliform and E.Coli in Distribution Systems
Project Number: 3116
Completed: 2009

Project Name: Probabilistic Modeling Framework for Assessing Water Quality Sampling Programs
Project Number: 3017
Completed: 2009

Project Name: Phase II: Silver Biotic Ligand Model (BLM): Refinement of an Acute BLM Silver
Project Number: 99-ECO-1-2T
Completed: 2008

Project Name: Failure of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe
Project Number: 4034
Completed: 2008

Project Name: Asset Management Research Needs Roadmap
Project Number: 4002
Completed: 2008

Project Name: Evaluation of the Dynamic Energy Consumption of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems
Project Number:  3056
Completed: 2008

Project Name: Contribution of Service Line and Plumbing Fixtures to Lead and Copper Rule Compliance Issues
Project Number: 3018
Completed: 2008

Project Name: Criteria for Optimized Distribution Systems
Project Number: 4109 
Completed: 2007

Project Name: Performance and Metal Release of Non-Leaded Brass Meters, Components, and Fittings
Project Number: 3112
Completed: 2007

Project Name: Long-Term Effects of Disinfection Changes on Water Quality
Project Number: 2940
Completed: 2007

Project Name: Application of HACC for Distribution System Protection
Project Number: 2856
Completed: 2006

Project Name: Distribution System Security Primer for Water Utilities
Project Number:  2931
Completed: 2005

Project Name: Development of Distribution System Water Quality Optimization Plans
Project Number: 2875
Completed: 2005

Project Name: Data Integration for Water Quality Management
Project Number: 2764
Completed: 2005

Project Name: Advanced Processes for Simultaneous Arsenic and Manganese Removal
Project Number: 2748
Completed: 2005

Project Name: Demonstration of Emerging Technologies for Arsenic Removal
Project Number: 2661
Completed: 2005

Project Name: Factors Influencing the Reliability of Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal
Project Number: 01-CTS-3
Completed: 2005

Project Name: Optimizing Chloramine Treatment, Second Edition
Project Number: 2760
Completed: 2004

Project Name: Verification and Control of Pressure Transients and Intrusion in Distribution Systems
Project Number: 2686
Completed: 2004

Project Name: Post-Optimization Lead and Copper Control Monitoring Strategies
Project Number: 2679
Completed: 2004

Project Name: Modeling DBP Formation Kinetics: Mechanistic and Spectroscopic Approaches
Project Number: 2597
Completed: 2004

Project Name: Establishing Site-Specific Flushing Velocities
Project Number: 2606
Completed: 2003

Project Name: Guidance Manual for Monitoring Distribution System Water Quality
Project Number: 2522
Completed: 2003

Project Name: Pathogen Intrusion into the Distribution System
Project Number: 436
Completed: 2003

Project Name: Development of Red Water Control Strategies
Project Number: 368
Completed: 2003

Project Name: Water Quality Models: A Survey and Assessment
Project Number: 99-WSM-5

Completed: 2002 

Project Name: Strategic Business Planning as a Water Resource Management Tool
Project Number: 2698
Completed: 2002

Project Name: Implementation of Arsenic Treatment Systems Part 2: Design Considerations, Operation, and Maintenance
Project Number: 2665
Completed: 2002

Project Name: Combining Adsorbents With Membranes for Water Treatment
Project Number: 2557
Completed: 2002

Project Name: Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination of Water Mains
Project Number: 2610
Completed: 2001

Project Name: Lead Pipe Rehabilitation and Replacement Techniques
Project Number: 465
Completed: 2000

Project Name: Guidance Manual for Maintaining Distribution System Water Quality
Project Number: 357
Completed: 2000

Project Name: Characterization of Natural Organic Matter in Drinking Water
Project Number: 159
Completed: 2000

Project Name: Distribution System Water Quality Changes following Corrosion Control Strategies
Project Number: 157
Completed: 2000

Project Name: Arsenic Treatability Options and Evaluation of Residuals Management Issues
Project Number: 153
Completed: 2000

Project Name: Synthesis Document on Arsenic in Drinking Water
Project Number: 2630
Completed: 1999

Project Name: Managing Constraints to Water Source Development
Project Number: 343
Completed: 1999

Project Name: Maintaining Water Quality in Finished Water Storage Facilities
Project Number: 254
Completed: 1999

Project Name: A General Framework for Corrosion Control based on Utility Experience
Project Number: 910
Completed: 1998

Project Name: Quality Energy Efficiency Retrofits for Water Systems
Project Number: 298
Completed: 1997

Project Name: Aluminum, Drinking Water, and Alzheimer's Disease
Project Number: 818
Completed: 1996

Project Name: Nitrification Occurrence and Control in Chloraminated Water Systems
Project Number: 710
Completed: 1995 

Project Name: An Assessment of Water Distribution Systems and Associated Research Needs
Project Number: 706
Completed: 1995

Project Name: Energy Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities 
Project Number: 736
Completed: 1994

Project Name: NOM Adsorption onto Iron-Oxide-Coated Sand
Project Number: 635
Completed: 1994

Project Name: Development of a Pipe Loop Protocol for Lead Control
Project Number: 604
Completed: 1994

Project Name: Chloramine Effects on Distribution System Materials
Project Number: 508
Completed: 1994

Project Name: Optimizing Chloramine Treatment
Project Number: 610
Completed: 1993

Project Name: Lead Control Strategies
Project Number: 406
Completed: 1990

Project Name: Chemistry of Corrosion Inhibitors in Potable Water
Project Number: 106
Completed: 1990

Project Name: Economics of Internal Corrosion Control
Project Number: 311
Completed: 1989