water

SDWA Wall Chart, 16th Edition Sources

Sources Guide Wall Chart's Infographic Facts

If you’ve seen the back side of our 16th edition SDWA Wall Chart, then you’ve seen our depiction of five critical drinking water challenges. To illustrate their complexity and magnitude, we quantified these challenges through infographic facts. We’d like to give credit to our sources. Each fact was informed by research teams, organizations or authors whose investigations help us better our industry. Thank you! 

Blue-Green Algal Blooms

Fact:  50+ countries, including 36 U.S. states, suspect cyanobacterial toxins have caused human and animal illness, even death.


Fact:  Cyanobacteria can produce compounds with taste and odor thresholds below 10 ppt, or <1 drop in an Olympic-sized pool.


Fact:  41% of U.S. rivers rated “poor” quality due to phosphorous and nitrogen contamination.

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances

Fact:  Between 2013 and 2015, 5.5.M people drank water with PFAS levels over the health advisory limit of 70 ppt.


Fact:  95% of U.S. residents have PFAS in their blood.

Drinking Water Lead Exposure

Fact:  >$200M spent annually on phosphate-based corrosion control, contributing to wastewater phosphorus loads.


Fact:  Removing all U.S. lead service lines will cost $43B+ and affect 1/3 of all water systems and 50,000 miles of pipe.


Fact:  37% of public school districts report elevated lead in drinking water — mostly attributable to brass fixtures.

Beneficial Reuse

Fact:  Over 850,000 taps supplied daily via indirect potable reuse in Orange County, California.


Fact:  Over 70% of global internet traffic flows through Loudoun County, Virginia, where recycled water is used for cooling processes in data centers.


Fact:  Reuse can play a major role in the $500B investment gap for drinking water/wastewater infrastructure.


Fact:  158B gallons of potable water are saved by reclaiming 67% of Florida’s wastewater.


Fact:  Over 1B gallons of water are recycled as non-potable in the U.S.

Public Works and Community Resilience

Fact:  6B gallons of treated water is wasted daily from water main breaks.


Fact:  Over $400B is needed to address sea level rise and climate change vulnerabilities over the next 20 years.


Fact:  Utilities experience 1 cyberattack per year, bypassing security guards, gates, and cameras.


Fact:  30% of all U.S. water operators are age 55+.

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You will receive two printed copies of the wall chart so both sides can be viewed when hung on a wall.